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Card-based Cryptography Meets Formal Verification

Begutachtete Veröffentlichung in Tagungsband

Autor(en):Alexander Koch, Michael Schrempp und Michael Kirsten
In:25th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security (ASIACRYPT 2019)
Verleger:Springer
Reihe:Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Jahr:2019
Links:

Abstract

Card-based cryptography provides simple and practicable protocols for performing secure multi-party computation (MPC) with just a deck of cards. For the sake of simplicity, this is often done using cards with only two symbols, e.g., ♣ and ♡. Within this paper, we target the setting where all cards carry distinct symbols, catering for use-cases with commonly available standard decks and a weaker indistinguishability assumption. As of yet, the literature provides for only three protocols and no proofs for non-trivial lower bounds on the number of cards. As such complex proofs (handling very large combinatorial state spaces) tend to be involved and error-prone, we propose using formal verification for finding protocols and proving lower bounds. In this paper, we employ the technique of software bounded model checking (SBMC), which reduces the problem to a bounded state space, which is automatically searched exhaustively using a SAT solver as a backend.
Our contribution is twofold: (a) We identify two protocols for converting between different bit encodings with overlapping bases, and then show them to be card-minimal. This completes the picture of tight lower bounds on the number of cards with respect to runtime behavior and shuffle properties of conversion protocols. For computing AND, we show that there is no protocol with finite runtime using four cards with distinguishable symbols and fixed output encoding, and give a four-card protocol with an expected finite runtime using only random cuts. (b) We provide a general translation of proofs for lower bounds to a bounded model checking framework for automatically finding card- and length-minimal protocols and to give additional confidence in lower bounds. We apply this to validate our method and, as an example, confirm our new AND protocol to have a shortest run for protocols using this number of cards.

Anmerkung

To appear.

BibTeX

@inproceedings{KochSchremppKirsten2019,
  author     = {Alexander Koch and
                Michael Schrempp and
                Michael Kirsten},
  editor     = {Mitsuru Matsui and
                Steven D. Galbraith and
                Shiho Moriai},
  title      = {Card-based Cryptography Meets Formal Verification},
  booktitle  = {25th International Conference on the Theory and
                Application of Cryptology and Information Security
                ({ASIACRYPT} 2019)},
  abstract   = {Card-based cryptography provides simple and practicable protocols for performing secure
                multi-party computation (MPC) with just a deck of cards. For the sake of simplicity, this
                is often done using cards with only two symbols, e.g., ♣ and ♡. Within this paper, we
                target the setting where all cards carry distinct symbols, catering for use-cases with
                commonly available standard decks and a weaker indistinguishability assumption. As of yet,
                the literature provides for only three protocols and no proofs for non-trivial lower
                bounds on the number of cards. As such complex proofs (handling very large combinatorial
                state spaces) tend to be involved and error-prone, we propose using formal verification
                for finding protocols and proving lower bounds. In this paper, we employ the technique of
                software bounded model checking (SBMC), which reduces the problem to a bounded state
                space, which is automatically searched exhaustively using a SAT solver as a backend.
                \newline
                Our contribution is twofold: (a) We identify two protocols for converting between
                different bit encodings with overlapping bases, and then show them to be card-minimal.
                This completes the picture of tight lower bounds on the number of cards with respect to
                runtime behavior and shuffle properties of conversion protocols. For computing AND, we
                show that there is no protocol with finite runtime using four cards with distinguishable
                symbols and fixed output encoding, and give a four-card protocol with an expected finite
                runtime using only random cuts. (b) We provide a general translation of proofs for lower
                bounds to a bounded model checking framework for automatically finding card- and
                length-minimal protocols and to give additional confidence in lower bounds. We apply this
                to validate our method and, as an example, confirm our new AND protocol to have a
                shortest run for protocols using this number of cards.},
  place     = {Kobe, Japan},
  date      = {December 8-12},
  month     = dec,
  series    = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year      = {2019},
  note      = {To appear.}
}